Category: Main Games Online (MMORPG) Games Ragnarok Online International (iRO) Client

Ragnarok Online

The version of the client used in the United States servers, allowing for all of the world to connect. This version is usually kept approximately six months to a year behind the kRO client.

Application Details:

Version: International (iRO) Client
Votes: 12
Latest Rating: Gold
Latest Wine Version Tested: 2.4

Maintainers: About Maintainership

Free Download Client Download (iRO)

Test Results

Selected Test Results

What works


What does not


What was not tested

Going past level 1 and exploring for more than 5 minutes.

Additional Comments

rm -fr ~/.wine
export WINEARCH=win32 #required to get ie8 installed on 64-bit machine.
./winetricks vcrun2008 ie8
#Download client from website and run.
selected in Test Results table below
Operating systemTest dateWine versionInstalls?Runs?RatingSubmitter
CurrentLinux Mint 17.3 "Rosa" x86_64Mar 24 20172.4Yes Yes GoldCory 
ShowLinux Mint 18 "Sarah"Oct 20 20161.9.21Yes No GarbageRicardo Gonazales 
ShowDebian GNU/Linux 8.x "Jessie" x86_64Sep 10 20161.9.18Yes Yes PlatinumInukaze 
ShowDebian GNU/Linux 8.x "Jessie" x86_64Jan 31 20161.8N/A Yes GoldInukaze 
ShowMac OS X 10.11 "El Capitan"Nov 30 20151.7.55Yes No Garbagean anonymous user 

Known Bugs

Bug # Description Status Resolution Other apps affected
6667 wine_gecko fails to load the html element of Ragnarok Online Update client. NEEDINFO View
33981 Ragnarok Online patcher: corrupt installation if vcrun2008 is not installed UNCONFIRMED View

Show all bugs

HowTo / Notes

Common Problems
  • Game starts with fatal error and closes.
You need vcrun2008 for gameplay work. If you execute this without vcrun2008, your instalation can be corrupt (the cause is unknow).
(This does not apply to openpatcher).
  • Patcher not shows information of update or receives error
Install wine gecko package (the package name varies according with your distribution). you can optionally install ie6 with winetricks instead of wine gecko package. Both work well.
  • The game is slow
Download this file and add to wine registry:

$ regedit boost.reg
(The performance gain is high.)
  • Tweaks in game for performance:
    • Simplify aura with /aura command
    • Simplify effects with /mineffect command, or use /effect for disable all effects.
    • Disable fog with /fog command
Open Source Tools


The following comments are owned by whoever posted them. WineHQ is not responsible for what they say.

Patcher crashes with "Program Error"
by Ricardo Gonazales on Thursday October 20th 2016, 22:38
I'm using Wine HQ official PPA's development branch. My current version is 1.9.21. The game installs just fine, but when I run the patcher, within 30 seconds of downloading updates, I get a "Program Error": "The program Ragnarok.exe has encountered a serious problem and needs to close. We are sorry for the inconvenience.

I'm running Mint 18 (Mate) 32-bit. I was able to get the game to work before on the version from the official repositories, but even that doesn't work now. I filed a bug report, but it's not getting any attention:

Any suggestions?
Ragnarok iRO wine fix mouse AMD drive
by Igor on Tuesday June 23rd 2015, 22:35
fix bug mouse in AMD drives,terminal gksudo amdcccle >Tear Free >Disable Tear Free Desktop to Free up graphics adapter resources
** wine 1.6.2 32bit w7
-vb6run, vcrun2008, vcrun2010,vcrun6, directx9, dinput & gecko.
good game ^-^
Player inside the updater
by Inukaze on Sunday June 7th 2015, 15:21
Hi there , if you wanna see the "Player" inside the Ragnarok Renewal Updater , you must install

Flash Player Active X ( For Internet Explorer )

You can download from ->

If you dont see in the first try , you should install with winetrick .

gecko , ie6

For install al HTML rendering components , and install after the FlashPlayer ActiveX , for have the player inside the Renewal Updater.
IRO client installer can't be downloaded via the official web site
by Richard Graham on Monday November 3rd 2014, 9:44
The latest version of the International Ragnarök Online (IRO) client installer is distributed via a download manager that isn't compatible with the latest stable version of Wine (1.7.30). (The file name of the download manager is Ragnarok-DLM.exe.) Wine users should therefore download the installer via one of the mirrors ( I've created.
boost.reg file missing
by Brian Hennigar on Thursday October 9th 2014, 7:08
The boost.reg file is no longer available at that link. Does anyone have a alternate download location.
Unable to Install
by Tom on Thursday June 5th 2014, 19:37
I am attempting to install iRO on my Mac but it is freezing up on the "Moving Files" screen, as previously noted by someone else. I attempted to do the fix but it does not seem to work on a Mac? Could anyone please give some advise on how to work around this? Thank you!
A workaround for the problem with the latest version of the IRO client installer
by Richard Graham on Friday November 29th 2013, 7:17
The latest version of the IRO client installer is a Windows Installer package with an Advanced Installer PE bootstrapper. Unfortunately, when the installer is executed normally (using the bootstrapper), the installation process stalls on the "moving files…" stage. You can work around this problem by extracting the Windows Installer files from the original file and then opening the Windows Installer package directly.

To extract the Windows Installer files to the current working directory:

$ wine Ragnarok_Installer-09272013.exe /extract "$(winepath -w "$(pwd)")"

To open the extracted Windows Installer package:

$ wine msiexec /i Ragnarok_Installer.msi
Windows Positions & Registry Keys
by Inukaze on Tuesday September 24th 2013, 14:04
The Bug "Corrupt instalation if vcrun2008 is not installed" .

i have test & check this bug begun in the "Wine 1.5.31"
and still , the bug it not fixed yet.

And the another thing . its the follow , In The Registry of Wine

This Work :

REGEDIT4 or Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00








I put the follow in a "Pastebin" , this Registry Keys , are not working are expected under "Wine" (From 1.2 untuil the current 1.7.2)

See the file ->

When i put that , the Client

Map Zoom , need 3 click in "less" to see full map

The Windows are opened when i start : Inventory , Equipament , Option , Quest , Skills.

That "Registry Key" are not autogenerated , when you run the game
And the Game Not Modifying that values inside the Registry Keys . causing when you open again the client, that windows , and zoom map , are the same, when you run like the before time.

The Best Version Of Wine for iro with fixes are : 1.5.30

Someone have a method , to stop asking "Install Mono / Install Gecko" i hate that thing and , are useless with this software. if you put the fix manually , and that asking if you wanna install Gecko/Mono.

by Inukaze on Monday September 23rd 2013, 10:50
Hi there , i am using "Wine 1.5.10" for , all perfect , this need "Gecko HTML" or Somes "IE6" Dlls , well are too works fine.

The issuie its , in all version , i have tested , from Wine 1.2 , to Wine 1.7.2. I See the game , dont save some data , like in Windows things like

Windows Position
Zoom Map
Item/Skill Bar (Press F12, to see it , in total 4) and this bar(s) position.

I wanna know, in where , this data are saved. for example under when i use Windows ??? . Because , in Wine , this are not saved.
  • RE: by Inukaze on Monday September 23rd 2013, 22:08
by Inukaze on Thursday August 29th 2013, 4:07
Hi there , i have the follow errors in a Clean installation :

You can see a png files in ->

I dont know why , but under Windows XP , install near 3.9GB
and the Folder of Game Size are 1.9GB.

In Where are the Another 2GB ???

Someone know , the Registry Keys for International Client ?
And how to fix that error plz ???

Under windows XP , works perfectly normally :(
  • RE: Errors by Inukaze on Friday August 30th 2013, 0:24
    • RE: Errors by Lara Maia on Friday August 30th 2013, 9:07
vcrun 08
by Felipe on Thursday July 18th 2013, 19:12
I'm porting the Brazilian server over here and i discovered that to update the launcher, you need first to install vc run ( I choose the 2010 ) in winetricks and then try to launch it.
ragnarok visual error
by Ron Watson on Monday June 24th 2013, 14:33
unfortunately i am receiving a visual error when trying to play the game under new wine ver 1.6. the background is missing, just completely black. i can see foreground images such as hp/sp bar under character, but character itself, as well as map is completely black. i can move mouse around and see the wording of drops so i must be on some monster map. Ragnarok worked fine for me under the 1.4 distribution, but was trying to get runescape to work which didn't prompting me to upgrade versions. have re-installed c++ redist as well as mono and gecko for new version. none of that worked at all. any help would be appreciated. after all that didn't work, i did attempt to re-run wine-tricks ragnarok install, but that just errors out when attempting to run the ragnarok installer file. Don't remember where wine-tricks prompted me to move the installer file to so i can't delete it. upon upgrading wine, i don't even know how to uninstall ragnarok online. Don't really want to wipe my os and start over from scratch.
twRO client msvcr error
by Han-sheng Huang on Monday July 23rd 2012, 23:10
wine: Call from 0x7b83a512 to unimplemented function msvcr90.dll._mbslwr_l, aborting
err:seh:raise_exception Unhandled exception code c0000005 flags 0 addr 0x55d081

I've put msvcr90 to system32 directory, but without any help
wine version: 1.5.9
What should i do now?
Installing the required Visual C++ libraries
by Richard Graham on Saturday May 26th 2012, 20:18
To install the Visual C++ 6.0 and Visual C++ 2008 runtime libraries required by the latest version of the IRO client:

1. Install winetricks.

2. Execute "winetricks vcrun6 vcrun2008".

3. Complete the Visual C++ 2008 Redistributable Package installation.
RO Patcher Crash
by Tim on Friday October 14th 2011, 22:54
I installed all of the libraries and such, and the patcher came up for RO and it completed all of its updates.. I hit the start button and both RO and Wine disappear without anything happening... Help! I'm a Wine newb :o
by Thiago Ruiz on Sunday March 20th 2011, 20:43
The patch don't open, after I double click any of the versions(Ragnarok.exe or RagnarokFree.exe) in the toolbar appears Starting Ragnarok but nothing happens after this, please help me
Black screen flashes
by martin on Thursday January 20th 2011, 16:17
I don't think that this is a iRO specific error, but this is the first time I've had this problem.

if I run :~$ wine RagnarokFree.exe it patches just fine and I click on "Start" it starts the game.

I see the Logo splash and then it flashes black a couple of times. It enters the EULA that you have to agree on which is where everything stays black. If I hover the mouse over the buttons "Agree" or "Exit" the image and agreement flashes for real quick, so if I know where my mouse is I can get past this screen. The same happen in the login window and character creation.

So, I can only see the game screen when i hover buttons, the rest of the time it is black.

When I first hit enter to run the application my entire screen flashes, not only the windowed game.

If i do :~$ wine Setup.exe it flashes a couple of times but when the setup window has loaded I can change all the settings I want. I have tried all combinations I could think of in this window.

Here I thought that my problem might be with my gfx card or how wine or my computer handles OpenGL. So testet two applications.

First was: which runs fine, no flashes and I see the gears without a hitch. When i first run the program how ever my screen flashes a couple of times before it loads.

Second was: which did just as fine as qtgears for windows. So, problem here shouldn't be OpenGL but something else.

Some gfx info that might be of interest.

:~$ lspci -vvv | grep "VGA compatible"
01:05.0 VGA compatible controller: ATI Technologies Inc RS690M [Radeon X1200 Series] (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])

:~$ glxinfo | grep "OpenGL renderer"
OpenGL renderer string: Mesa DRI R300 (RS690 791F) 20090101 x86/MMX+/3DNow!+/SSE2 NO-TCL DRI2

:~$ glxinfo | grep "OpenGL version"
OpenGL version string: 1.5 Mesa 7.9-devel

Anyone have any idea on where my problem might lie?
Error at end of installation (Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx + Wine 1.2)
by Kerina Yin on Saturday July 24th 2010, 1:13
Completed the installation but got errors at the end. See screenshot of Terminal here,

Able to run RO until login screen. Screen disappears upon login and nothing happens :(

Tried on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS - the Lucid Lynx with Wine 1.2

by Matthew Cline on Tuesday May 4th 2010, 19:25
With wine-1.1.32 on Mandriva One 2010.0 it works just fine, except that some of the sound effects echo in a way I don't think they're supposed to.

by Ranlid on Tuesday February 2nd 2010, 11:01
I'am have Ubuntu 9.10 and wine 1.2\1.37 and client russian ragnarok server Raggame (official), after running ragnarok in game, system and music players sound awful wheeze. Sound - ALSA. How do I fix?
Backround lag
by Jeff on Thursday November 26th 2009, 19:32
The game opens fine, but when actually playing RO there is a lag of the background scenes as i move and it takes a while to load new maps. Its seems as i have a low frame rate. I increased the ram of my computer with no change at all to game play. I dont run any other apps either. Though the game is completely playable its lack of response is very irritating.
by Chase Bonvie on Wednesday September 23rd 2009, 23:05
Okay, I've got a visual, but it's terrible. How do I fix this?

by Chase Bonvie on Wednesday September 23rd 2009, 22:36
Alright, here's some new things. I was able to get Valkyrie.exe to work, it did a patch, but here's the kicker, when I have the resolution set to 1024x768 (I think that's what it is), the result is me hearing the background music and nothing else, and I have to do a force shut down to cancel it. at 800x600, I get a Gravity Error. Should I not use window mode? Why do I not have a visual?
by Chase Bonvie on Wednesday September 23rd 2009, 21:58
Okay, I've installed the iRO_ver13.0-full-20090717-1945.exe and then I installed the iRO_Valkyrie_Client-20080925.exe. both of which I have just downloaded from the website. I installed them into Wine 1.1.29 on an Ubuntu 9.04 - The Jaunty Jackalope with the 2.26.1 GNOME desktop.

My problem is that, after installation, and I try to open the Sakray, Ragnarok Online, or Valyrie clients, I only get a thing on the bottom bar of my desktop saying one of these things:

"Starting Sakray"
"Starting Ragnarok Online"

or something like that depending on which executable file I am opening from the c:/Program Files/Gravity/RagnarokOnline directory. After about ten seconds of it saying that, the flashing on my screen stops and nothing happens. The only executable that is working is the Setup. Can someone please explain to me how I'm supposed to set this up so that I can play?
application error
by Ivan on Friday July 24th 2009, 18:27
when i exe the client i get this error:

Exception EExternalException dans le module ntdll.dll à 0002C418.
Exception externe C0000025.

i cant solve it T_T can some1 help me PLZ
i play in a latin serv called xatiya2 ive checked that could be a problem related whit gameguard but i dont wknow neather how to know what is it nor how to solve it HELP PLZ!!!!
by Damieon on Wednesday February 18th 2009, 11:39
greetings. i am runnin slackware 12.3 and i have wine 1.1.14

i ahve moved the two .dll files to the system32 folder.

when i run the RAG.exe file through wine, it tries to load the application. Before i see anything open, it closes. it literally loads for nothing.
PLEASE PLEASE someone help

by Kaede on Saturday July 5th 2008, 3:59
Both the official patcher and private server patchers seem to run perfectly with Internet Explorer 6 installed.
To do this, you'll simply need to install RO into your IEs4Linux wineprefix. :)
  • RE: by larva_opensuse on Thursday October 16th 2008, 18:43
by Henry Lajoie on Thursday February 28th 2008, 11:06
Wine version 0.9.55 here - I needed 2 dlls from windows to get the patcher working: mfc42.dll and msvcp60.dll. The new one can't be registered, just put it in [winedir]/windows/system

As for the sound error, I don't see it weather I try to load the game with or without sound enabled. Granted, I can't get the game to display anything yet (ATI), although I suspect this doesn't help:
fixme:win:EnumDisplayDevicesW ((null),0,0x33f048,0x00000000), stub!

For anyone having trouble running the patcher in a terminal,be sure to navigate to the ragnarok directory before trying.

For those running the patcher from a VM and then running the game, you must run it as "wine ragexe.exe -1rag1" - without the -1rag1 you will get an error dialog with no text and the game will not start (this is to prevent you from running the game without patching first)
Homun AI not working
by Matt on Monday October 29th 2007, 17:27
took some time but i get RO to work on ubuntu 7.04 64bit with wine 0.9.46, it patches, runs smooth, no errors, but after loading the custom AI and using the /hoai command it says that the AI was customized but it is still acting like the default AI, i even completely replaced the default AI and nothing.

i want to get rid of windows once and for all, so does anyone have any ideas? i've tried the official RO forums and no one could really help me.

Fullscreen, Native Resolution Slowdown
by AAJ on Sunday September 30th 2007, 18:02
Whenever I run RO in fullscreen at the same resolution as my monitor it only loads the bottom left quarter of the game in the top left quater of my monitor, although it runs at full speed. I can run the game without this issue in any other resolution or even in windowed mode, but it is hardly playable with slowdown.

I have a Nvidia 6200, new drivers
Newest Wine running in windows 98 mode
My monitor is 1280x1024 at 16bits

I have tried to change my monitor resolution and then run ro at the new resolution and I get the same result. No changes to the Setup.exe seem to change this.
Private servers and DNS Problems
by Eddahbi Karim on Sunday September 30th 2007, 0:18
I got some problems while trying to connect to a private server with a modified client and I found a solution to my problem.

The problem is caused by :
- The character encoding used to encode the characteres of the file sclientinfo.xml
- The charset used with the current locale.

I found two solutions :

* If you can extract the file "sclientinfo.xml" from the GRF used by the private client
- If no folder named "data" is present in your private client installation directory, create it. (Ex : If the client is installed in ~/.wine/drive_c/RO, do 'mkdir ~/.wine/drive_c/RO/data')

- Extract the sclientinfo.xml :
-- From the GRF used by the private client. To do this, you can use softwares like "grftool-gtk".
-- To the "data" directory, defined in the previous step of this procedure.

- Edit the file with your favorite text editor
- Look at the first line of the file and change the value of "encoding" according to the charset used by your locale.

Example :
My locale is fr_FR.UTF-8
So I changed the first line of sclientinfo.xml.
Before :

After :

If you can't extract the file, you'll have to know (or guess) the encoding used to encode this file and adjust your locale settings accordingly and execute the game.

To check the locales currently usable on your system, you can do locale -a

It's possible that no according locale are present on your system, in this case, you'll have to generate them. For example, if you use debian, you can do :

# dpkg-reconfigure locales

Example :
* The sclientinfo.xml is encoded using the euc-kr charset.

$ locale -a

$ LANG=ko_KR.euckr wine Ragnarok-client.exe

These solutions solved MY problem with DNS resolving and wine 0.9.44. I don't think that the wine version matters...
by Richard Korman on Sunday September 16th 2007, 1:09
Anyone else having problems getting Ragnarok to run without crashing on 0.9.45?

It runs without crashing on 0.9.44, but crashes on 0.9.45 randomly, on several fresh installs with several pc's... just wondering if anyone else was seeing these symptoms. Sounds like a regression somewhere.
  • RE: 0.9.45 by Christ Schlacta on Sunday September 16th 2007, 1:20
RE: RO Versioning?
by James Caveney on Thursday May 17th 2007, 18:25
I agree. I am still unable to play with a fresh install of wine 0.9.37-git, with kRO 1011 hexed for a private server.. but I cannot connect, I have been getting the same issue since 0.9.30. kRO and kRO for private servers should be separated.
by Lazarus Kehara on Monday May 14th 2007, 8:20

I'm so glad that it was fixed... WINE ROCKS! :D
Too slow to play Ragnarok in Wine
by Calson on Tuesday April 10th 2007, 21:26
I am a linux noob.

Im using a Fujitsu S2110 Lifebook Laptop (Graphics is ATI Radeon Xpress 200m) to play Ragnarok on wine through Ubuntu 6.10 Edgy. I finally was able to get the game to run, and the game runs. I can connect to the server, log onto my characters. But it is not playable, the mouse moves much too slowly and it pretty much lags with everything i do (clicking, typing, etc). Could it be because i am using an ATI card? or are there some settings that i should be using to increase the performance( i disabled effects, lightmap, fog, sprite and texture are set to the bare minimum, running on 640X480) any help is appreciated :)
AppDB Rating inflation
by Tony Lambregts on Wednesday January 3rd 2007, 21:06
This App is definately not platinum. It does not "run flawlessly out of the box". I changed the maintainer rating to gold
CVS Question
by Alex Yang-Nikodym on Friday December 22nd 2006, 19:03
After installing wine CVS, the terminal says I'm missing DLLs. I download the DLLs, and then one of the DLLs give me an error. Recently though, I re-installed my computer, and am currently compiling Wine, so I'll get back soon.

Running Ubuntu 6.10 (Edgy Eft)
Failed To Connect
by w0rm_Davide on Sunday November 26th 2006, 9:33
Hi, i installed ragnarok without problems.
it run but when i try to log-in it say: 'Failed To Connect To server'
i read a lot on google and i found it:
i set rules on iptables and re-tried but the problem was the same... can anyone help me?

ps: i tried to ran PRIVATE servers only...

distro: archlinux 0.7.2
kernel: 2.6.18-ARCH
arch: i686 - 3Ghz
video card: NVIDIA GeForce 6600 256mb
video card's driver installed: nvidia 9626
wine's version: 0.9.25
RE: Game seems to run fine, updater fails though.
by Richard Korman on Friday November 10th 2006, 12:04
Solved my own problem not 5 seconds afetr posting this using this mfc42.dll:

Anyone have any idea why this native works while the others dont?
Very slooooow FPS
by JohnDoe on Friday October 20th 2006, 14:22
I'm using wine 0.9.23 on ubntu dapper 6.06. got an ati x1300 video card and official drivers installed...
I was able to run the game (on private servers) only coping the updated windows installation.
Problem is: I got no more than 2-5 fps per second.. and playing is a bit difficult.
I also tried older wine versions (>0.9.17 and
RE: Game will not run
by Rob Fallone on Wednesday October 18th 2006, 14:56
I had the same problem, but fixed it.
I downloaded the mfc42.dll file from and copied it to ~/.wine/drive_c/windows/system32/

I made sure to copy it in all capitals so that it wouldn't complian. Got the game to go without a hitch.

Hope this helps you.
Transparent Text Backgrounds
by Code Reaper on Thursday August 24th 2006, 21:44
Generally, its basically the same issues as Nussi posted a bit ago. Im using a default FC5 install and 0.9.19 wine rpm. Ragnarok runs with screen jumps and the background behind dynamic text is gone. The text block for names and things, as seen in some of the screenshots, is just gone, making reading it a hell of a time.
by alex on Monday August 14th 2006, 15:58

this comment from the real neo has put me in the right way.

at this moment my friend and me are playing sakray ro without problems.

I just added an iptables rule to redirect outgoing connections to to the real ip of the server.

Good luck!
RE: lol
by alex on Monday August 14th 2006, 14:28
Hi guys,
I got the same problem in my laptop, debian etch with kernel 2.6.17 custom and wine 0.9.19 from cvs (i downloaded it this just morning).

I started ethereal/wireshark and .. surprise!

mi machine tries to connect to instead of the true IP of the server....

I wonder if its some kind of internal problem in wine or smthg... cause otherwise it has no sense.

the same problem appears to happen in a friend's box with ubuntu dapper and its official repository version of wine (but i have made no tests in that box)

maybe the guys at wine dev team can give us a clue...


Slow FPS
by Kris on Friday July 28th 2006, 20:26
Is there a fix to the game being super slow, Really low FPS or something, unplayable ?
  • RE: Slow FPS by Guillaume VanderEst (gn0me) on Thursday August 10th 2006, 3:51
RE: Black Screen running ragexe
by William Pousha on Saturday July 1st 2006, 17:46
I am having the same problem. I try loading a Ragnarok client, and my computer gets real bad lag and it shows nothing but an all black screen.

I can hear the music playing, and if I hit enter I can hear the sounds it makes as your selecting the server to connect to; just no picture.

Rather annoying.
RE: error running on PCLinuxOS
by Guillaume VanderEst (gn0me) on Wednesday June 21st 2006, 20:26
Was just wondering which version of Wine you are using as I haven't had a crash in a very long time (since like five or six versions ago).
Ragnarok doesn't work for me
by Sven Peter on Wednesday May 3rd 2006, 11:45

When I run wine Ragnarok.exe the patcher downloads the first file and then quits with "Connection to patch server failed".
I fixed this by downloadings the files manually with wget[filename]. The files you need to download are in the patch2.txt. Just look which file the patcher wants to download first and then use wget to download all following files where the line doesn't start with //.
When I now click on "Start" or run wine Ragexe -1rag1 RO starts but I cannot see the mouse cursor all the time. At first I can see it but then it hides until I stop moving my mouse. On Win the mouse cursor always turns itself but when I'm using wine I just see it from the front.
I also cannot see any player or non player characters (including mine).
Finally there's another minor problem: The parts of the windows where text is written are transparent. I can still read the fonts but it just doesn't look very good but I could live with it.
Does anyone know how I could fix the prior problems (the cursor and the character problem)?